PBG Content Committee

Reference list formats

The following are based on the Agronomy Society of America publications manual, with noted exceptions.

Checklist of some general principles when preparing and formatting References

  • Make sure that bibliographic information has been compiled properly.
  • Cite the references in the text using "(Author last name, year)" such as: (Zaborski, 2008).
  • Make sure that all cited references cited in the text appear in References section, and vice-versa.
  • Verify that hyperlinks in references are correct.
  • When multiple versions of online resources are available, preferentially link to HTML versions.
  • Use an en-dash to convey the sense of to or through, particularly in ranges (such as ranges of page numbers and dates of Proceedings).
  • Use only single spaces, not double spaces.
  • Names (punctuated initials and surname) in a series of authors or editors are separted by commas; the last name in the series is preceeded by a comma and the word 'and'.
  • Only the first author in a list of authors or editors at the beginning of a reference is listed surname first, a comma, and initials; list remaining names initials first and then surname.
  • Capitalize the first word of title and subtitles of articles, bulletins, or books, as well as capitalizing proper names.
  • Do not use abbreviations for titles of journals, books, proceedings, and so forth.

References (use bulleted list)

Articles in periodical publications

Elements of a reference to an article in a periodical publication, in order, are: author(s), year of publication, full title of article, title of publication, volume and inclusive page numbers.

  • Journal Article
    • Brainard, D. C., R. R. Bellinder, R. R. Hahn, and D. A. Shah. 2008. Crop rotation, cover crop, and weed management effects on weed seedbanks and yields in snap bean, sweet corn and cabbage. Weed Science 56: 434–441.
    • Kumar, V., D. C. Brainard, and R. R. Bellinder. 2008. Suppression of Powell amaranth (Amaranthus powellii), shepherd’s-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) and corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis) by buckwheat residues: Role of nitrogen and fungal pathogens. Weed Science 56: 271–280.
  • Article in Serial Publication
    • Egley, G. H. 1986. Stimulation of weed seed germination in soil. Reviews of Weed Science 2: 67–89.
    • Weller, D. M., J. M. Raaijmakers, B. B. M. Gardener, and L. S. Thomashow. 2002. Microbial populations responsible for specific soil suppressiveness to plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 40: 309–348.
  • Magazine Article
    • Comis, D. 2007. No shortcuts in checking soil health. Agricultural Research. 55: 4–5. (Available online at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/ar/archive/jul07/soil0707.htm.) (verified 8 Dec 2008).
    • Nordell, E., and A. Nordell. 2006. Weed the soil, not the crop: A whole-farm approach to the weed-free market garden. Small Farmer's Journal 30 (3–summer): 53–58.

Chapters or articles in a larger work (book, proceedings, etc.)

Elements of a reference to a chapter or article in a larger work (such as a book or proceedings), in order: author(s), year of publication, full title of chapter or article, inclusive pages, the italicized word 'In', the name(s) of any editors followed by '(ed.), the full publication title, volume and edition number (if applicable), publisher, and city of publication. Articles in conference proceedings also require: after the proceedings title, the place of the meeting  followed by a period; then the date of the proceedings.

  • Chapter in Book
    • Liebman, M., and E. R. Gallandt. 1997. Many little hammers: Ecological approaches for management of crop-weed interactions. p. 291–343. In L. E. Jackson (ed.) Ecology in agriculture. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
    • Norris, R. F. 1999. Ecological implications of using thresholds for weed management. p. 31–58. In D. D. Buhler (ed.) Expanding the context of weed management. Food Products Press, New York.
  • Chapter in a Proceedings Volume
    • Mazzola, M., and M. F. Cohen. 2005. Consideration of plant-microbe interactions in the application of organic amendments for soilborne disease control. p. 53–54. In D. Granatstein and A. Azarenko (ed.) Proceedings 3rd National Organic Tree Fruit Research Symposium, Chelan, Washington. 6–8 June 2005. Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, Wenatchee, WA.

Larger works

  • Conference, Symposium, or Workshop Proceedings and Transactions
    • Granatstein, D. and A. Azarenko (ed.). 2005. Proceedings 3rd National Organic Tree Fruit Research Symposium, Chelan, Washington. 6–8 June 2005. Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, Wenatchee, WA.
  • Book (including bulletins, reports, multivolume works, series)
    • Altieri, M. 1995. Agroecology: The science of sustainable agriculture. 2nd ed. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
    • California Certified Organic Farmers. 1995. California Certified Organic Farmers certification handbook. California Certified Organic Farmers, Santa Cruz.
    • Coleman, E. 1995. The new organic grower: A master's manual of tools and techniques for the home and market gardener. 2nd ed. Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction, VT.
    • Jackson, L. E. (ed.) 1997. Ecology in agriculture. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
    • Liebman, M., C. L. Mohler, and C. P. Staver. 2001. Ecological management of agricultural weeds. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Book with link to a website to purchase it
  • Dissertation
    • Harbuck, K. Z. 2007. Weed seedbank dynamics and composition of Northern Great Plains cropping systems. MS Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.
    • Gaur, A., 1997. Inoculum production technology development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. Ph. D. thesis. Univ. of Delhi, Dehli, India.

Non-print media

  • Both Print and electronic versions available (note: link to html version is preferred over other formats, eg. PDF, DOC, etc.)
  • Electronic and Other Media Sources (non-print version only)
    • Zaborski, E. R., D. Lamm, J. Riddle, and M. M. Wander. 2009. NRCS EQIP: What you need to know about the Organic Initiative [Online]. eXtension Foundation, eOrganic Community of Practice. Available at: http://www.extension.org/article/21072 (verified 16 Sept 2009).
    • Finney, D. M., and N. G. Creamer. 2008. Weed management on organic farms. Center for Environmental Farming Systems organic production guide [Online]. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC. Available at: http://www.cefs.ncsu.edu/PDFs/WeedMgmtJan808Accessible.pdf (verified 11 Nov 2008).
    • Grubinger, V. 2004. Farmers and their innovative cover cropping techniques [VHS tape/DVD]. University of Vermont Extension, Burlington, VT.
    • Hill, E. 2006. Keys to long-term weed management [Online]. New Agriculture Network Vol. 3 No. 1. Available at: http://www.new-ag.msu.edu/issues06/04-12.htm#1 (verified 19 Nov 2008).
    • Mohler, C.L. Undated. Ecology of weed management in organic systems [Online slide presentation]. Available at: http://www.css.cornell.edu/WeedEco/Mohler Ecology of Weed manag Presentation.pdf (verified 28 Nov 2008).
    • Schonbeck, M.S., and B. McCann, 2007. Cultural practices for managing weeds [Interactive Online Course]. Module D. In Integrated pest management for organic crops. Cooperative Extension Curriculum Project. Available at: http://www.sare.org/coreinfo/SSAREceprogram.htm (verified 21 Nov 2008).
    • Sullivan, P. 2003. Principles of sustainable weed management for croplands [Online]. ATTRA Publication #PO39. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. Available at: http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/weed.html (verified 21 Nov 2008).
  • Clip within a DVD
    • Morse, R. 2006. High residue reduced-till system: Introduction. In A. Stone (Producer) Weed 'em and reap. Part 2: Reduced tillage systems for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. (Available online at: http://eorganic.info/node/3289) (verified 18 Dec. 2008).
  • Website - home page
    • Organic Ecology [Online]. Regents of the University of Minnesota. Available at: http://organicecology.umn.edu/ (verified 3 Dec 2008).
      [Author/compiler/editor etc. of the webpage, if available. Title of the page [Online]. Title of the overall website, if distinct from the page being cited. Publisher or sponsor of the site (often the copyright holder). Available at: full URL of the webpage (verified day month year).]
    • eXtension [Online]. eXtension Foundation. Available at: http://www.extension.org/ (verified 16 Sept 2009).
    • eOrganic Community of Practice. Organic Agriculture [Online]. eXtension. eXtension Foundation. Available at: http://www.extension.org/organic%20production (verified 16 Sept 2009).
    • Agricultural Marketing Service—National Organic Program [Online]. United States Department of Agriculture. Available at: http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/ (verified 8 Dec 2008).
  • Wikipedia page
    • Wikipedia contributors. Albert Howard [Online]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albert_Howard&oldid=240947194 (verified 3 Dec 2008).
      [Note, on the wiki page you are citing, in the lower left of the page in a box entitled 'Toolbox', you will find a link that says 'Cite this page'. This will take you to a page that provides metadata for the article, along with recommeded citations in various formats. Our format is a variation of that for CSE. Note that the URL on this page is to the exact version of the page you are referencingwiki pages are frequently updated and you want to be able to point to the exact version of the page you are referencing.]

Further Reading

This section is for any outside links made in the article text or just for any additional items the author wants to list.  This list can be either author name first or title first.  Follow the above guidelines for format.  If the title is listed first, move the title to the front and leave the rest in the same order (but list the first authors name surname after, rather than before, initials).

  • Crop rotation, cover crop, and weed management effects on weed seedbanks and yields in snap bean, sweet corn and cabbage. D. C. Brainard, R. R. Bellinder, R. R. Hahn, and D. A. Shah. 2008. Weed Science 56: 434–441.